Definitely the original type AGM battery but not for the reason of charging differences.
The AGM for the Volt has a vent tube to keep gasses from being vented into the interior of your car. I bought a 12 model a year and a half ago and just decided to put a new battery in it. When I changed it I found it had a regular lead acid battery in it from a previous owner. It was charging just fine and I didn't know I was breathing acid fumes but It isn't a good idea to do so.
Here is where I bought my new battery-----https://www.ebay.com/itm/ACDelco-47AGM-Professional-AGM-Automotive-BCI-Group-47-Battery/153210426488?ssPageName=STRK%3AMEBIDX%3AIT&_trksid=p2057872.m2749.l2649
Looks like the listing has ended, I paid $139 which was very cheap for an original equipment battery.
A conventional lead-acid battery would not vent acid fumes but in the event of a collision or rollover the conventional battery case could rupture and spray sulfuric acid electrolyte solution inside the vehicle. When charging a conventional battery could vent hydrogen and oxygen gas but not acid fumes.
The AGM battery is a type of valve regulated lead acid battery that would only vent excess hydrogen and oxygen from the pressure relief valve if the battery was being excessively overcharged. The tube is attached to ensure that any gases vent outside the passenger compartment but in normal operation the AGM battery is sealed. The AGM battery allows engineers the flexibility of placing the 12V battery inside the passenger compartment of the vehicle, the AGM battery can be installed in any orientation due to being sealed. The vent tube is provided in case the battery ever is subjected to overcharging and needs to vent built up gases.
As a short-term solution you could install a conventional 12V lead-acid battery in the Volt until the correct AGM battery could be obtained but the specified charging voltages and charging curve of a conventional lead-acid battery and an AGM battery are not the same. A conventional 12V battery installed in the Volt would not be properly charged. An AGM battery could easily be damaged by overcharging using a conventional battery charger. If an AGM battery case were to rupture due to a collision very little electrolyte would leak from the battery as the electrolyte is fully contained in fiberglass matting like a damp sponge.