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I have a 2013 and have owned it for several years. I'm in MN and it has been cold (-20F). It has 110k miles.
The car gets plugged in every night. One night it didn't charge. The next day, there was a trip with the power reduced message, which went away.
Since then, I now get "Unable to charge". The bulb goes yellow for a handful of seconds, no green.
The car recognizes something is plugged in (can't shift to drive, engine doesn't come on to warm it until the charger is unplugged, etc.)
The connected light comes on on the charger.
I have tried multiple chargers on multiple circuits, and both at 240V and 120V.
I have installed a new AGM 12V battery. (Old one tested fine on the big tester at the auto parts store. I think it's the original AC DELCO, so 9 years on it probably?!?, but that's a different topic)
The charging port and pins on the car appears in good shape (straight, not corroded, etc.).
Coolant levels in all three containers appear good.
I have searched the forum and come up with nothing that fits my situation.
The weather has warmed to close to freezing and the problem persists. This includes across several drive cycles following battery replacement.
Mountain mode put bars into the battery icon, but the icon remains grey. This would imply the traction battery and getting power into it is still ok.
I do NOT have a check engine light or any other indication of problems.

My local dealer is not an electric expert, nor is my regular mechanic.
I do not have access to a heated garage to soak the whole car with summer temps.

Looking for ideas (with some reasoning behind them).
 

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I can’t comment on the unable to charge/service high voltage system issues, but charging via Mountain Mode is often possible, as you discovered. This uses gas, so the system tries to account for it on the non-Electric Mode side of the ledger. That’s why the battery icon remains grey.

If you turn the car off and back on again, the computer will recognize the state of charge is above the normal switch to gas level, and you should be able to use that MM-recharged battery power to drive Electric Miles... but the kWh Used will not increase because that’s not grid power.

The 2013 Volt, if equipped, has a setting in the vehicle personalization configuration menu that enables Engine Assisted Heating (Plugged-In). This should NOT be turned on, of course, if the car is parked inside a closed space:

If equipped, this feature turns on or off the ability for the engine to run to help heat the vehicle when it is plugged in. A change in setting will not take affect until after the vehicle is first powered down. The Engine Assisted Heating (Plugged-In) options are On or Off.
 

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Discussion Starter #3
I can’t comment on the unable to charge/service high voltage system issues, but charging via Mountain Mode is often possible, as you discovered. This uses gas, so the system tries to account for it on the non-Electric Mode side of the ledger. That’s why the battery icon remains grey.

If you turn the car off and back on again, the computer will recognize the state of charge is above the normal switch to gas level, and you should be able to use that MM-recharged battery power to drive Electric Miles... but the kWh Used will not increase because that’s not grid power.

The 2013 Volt, if equipped, has a setting in the vehicle personalization configuration menu that enables Engine Assisted Heating (Plugged-In). This should NOT be turned on, of course, if the car is parked inside a closed space:

If equipped, this feature turns on or off the ability for the engine to run to help heat the vehicle when it is plugged in. A change in setting will not take affect until after the vehicle is first powered down. The Engine Assisted Heating (Plugged-In) options are On or Off.
I know how the car works. I brought up mountain mode only to show that the car can put power into the traction battery, which eliminates a number of possibly root causes.
 

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It's curious that the vehicle is not throwing any codes. My suggestion would be to take the vehicle to a dealer experienced with Volts.
 

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You might suspect cracks on the back of the charge port, this is common on gen 1 and there is an updated part. I had to change the charge port on my ELR for this.
 

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You might suspect cracks on the back of the charge port, this is common on gen 1 and there is an updated part. I had to change the charge port on my ELR for this.
That was my thought as well...
 

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That was my thought as well...
I had a similar issue and ordered a new charge port. When replacing it I found a burned connection where the port plugs into the harness from the car. I cleaned the old one and have not had an issue since. If it does it again I suspect that single wire will be cut from the plug and connected directly instead of through the plug. I kept the new port just in case.
 
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