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Your questions don't really made sense... Level 2 means 240V charging, it doesn't necessarily mean a specific amount of current at that voltage, though. You can have level 2 at 12 amps, 15, 30, etc. (depending on your EVSE and the car's charger capacity). Level 1 is 120V charging, and for most cars it tops out at 12 amps (Tesla allows 16, I think, if you know you have a 20A circuit, but Volt will not).

The math is simple: power is current times voltage. So level 1 is 120V x 8A = 960 Watts (or 1400 Watts at 12A). A common level 2 setup is 240V x 14A = 3300 Watts. Higher wattage means faster charging, and that comes about by increasing voltage and current.
 

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Always remember the dichotomy of electricity: the source determines the voltage, but the load determines the current. This is why we need breakers or fuses. You can plug your Volt into a 50 amp 240 volt outlet but it is still going to draw what it wants, about 16 amps. On the other hand, you can plug it into a 10 amp 240 volt outlet and it will still draw that 16 amps, oops.
Well, that's not strictly true with EVs... the car and EVSE handshake and agree on the current. The right EVSE on your hypothetical 10A 240V outlet would work just fine (well, Volt will definitely do 12A on 240v, not sure it will handshake to 10A but it might ... somewhat depends on the car). You're right that you can't put a 40A 240V EVSE set for max power on that same outlet and expect it to work, of course. But a programmable EVSE or car (Tesla allows you to select the current) would work.
 
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